Mosaics, tapestries, etc., the same size base map or artwork first drawn on paper. The English word cartoon is actually derived from the Italian cartone (cardboard). Before the middle of the 19th century, cartoon was roughly what it meant. The Raphael Cartoons, now dedicated to a large exhibition room at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London, is a famous example in history. Raphael was commissioned by the new Pope Leo X to draw ten drawings, including the "fishing miracle" shown in the picture. It hangs on the lower wall of the Sistine Chapel during the celebration.
Later, in addition to the Sistine Chapel, other European courts also made tapestries according to Raphael's drawings. Here I will sell a word. Readers who are interested in finding out more, please click on the link and refer to this paper "The Opportunity for the Reconstruction of "Religious Art" in England in the Eighteenth Century: From Raphael's photo color correction services Drawings and Two Religious Articles On the Debate of Images" , mainly pp. 545-549. (Wow, I seem to be self-marketing!) Also, did you just say that the meaning of cartoon changed in the middle of the nineteenth century? How did it change? This is to blame (and credit!) to the British magazine Clumsy (Punch, 1841-2002), known for its satire on current affairs.
This magazine, launched in July 1841, was originally designed by two woodblock printmakers to imitate the French satirical magazine Le Charivari (1832-1937). Since 1843, the idiomatic meaning of cartoon in English has been changed. How to do it? In fact, the cause is indeed a group of "artwork" in the traditional sense: in 1842, the British Parliament held a large-scale mural drawing competition in order to re-decorate the Parliament Building, which had been burned in 1834. The designated theme of the painting must be British history or literature. The winning artwork was exhibited at Westminster Hall in 1843. The exhibition just gave the editors of Clumsy an opportunity to criticize current affairs.